Almost none of this page has been updated since 2001-2003! You can find some newer materials at my blog Vitanuova. The contact information on this page is still current in 2008.
I read [Steven Levy's book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution] as a teenager. [...] I was like, "God damn it, I should be here!" Then, about ten years later, I thought back about it: "You know, if there was a fourth section in that book, maybe I would be in there!" That's a nice thought.
(John Carmack, in an interview with Thresh's FiringSquad)
Stallman is right, though, we aren't talking about freedom enough. Do people really spend their weekends helping annoying new people install free software because it has a more efficient development methodology? Of course not. If it were only about efficiency, hobbyists would volunteer to replace the old ballasts in companies' fluorescent lights.
(Don Marti, LinuxWorld On-Line)
This debate is about more than choosing a method of developing software.
(Microsoft Corporation, FAQ Regarding Shared Source)
"Why don't we take a vote?" I suggested.
"No!" said David. "That's not fair because the majority will win!"
(Raymond Smullyan, 5000 B.C. and Other Philosophical Fantasies, chapter 3, fragment 55)
And what's the future, who will choose it?
Politics of love and music...
(Dar Williams, "Are You Out There?")
My friend Paul Skenazy makes this point when he tells a story about his son Jason at the age of two picking up a favorite book. Paul asked him, "What does it say?" Pretending to read, Jason replied, "I ... love ... you."
(Beth Hadas, "Translating the Vast World", in Robert Lawson, Ferdinandus Taurus, trans. Elizabeth Hadas)
picture by Chris Palmer
My contact information | My GPG key | My current web diary (vitanuova): latest entry, all entries | My old web diary (on Advogato) | My (not current) résumé | My job | LNX-BBC Project (bootable business card mini-distribution) | My essay about the DeCSS Haiku
Please support EFF by making a tax-deductible financial contribution, and help us protect your rights. You can get a new "On-line Freedom Doesn't Just Happen" t-shirt.
I am sometimes looking for work (on a consulting or part-time basis), preferably related to free software, teaching, or both. Here is my old résumé, which has not been updated substantially since around 2002. You might not want to offer me work on the basis of such an old résumé -- anyway, please no Linux kernel work because I'm not and have never been a kernel hacker.
I have contact information up.
I have a web diary. (I have an account on Advogato, the free software developer's resource; I kept a pretty regular technical/personal diary there for a year, but I think I'm only going to write about technical things there in the future.)
I am working as a Staff Technologist at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. I work as a consulting expert on litigation, advise the attorneys on technical issues, and do some research and writing about technology issues, among other things.
I worked on some computer security research with some great colleagues recently; our work was presented at USENIX Security, where it was honored with the Best Student Paper award, and it also received a Pwnie Award for Most Innovative Research. John Markoff wrote about our research in the New York Times business section in February 2008 after the preprint was published.
I am writing a lament, along the lines of Dunbar's Lament for the Makers.
Get Caught Reading -- and go to jail! Dmitry Sklyarov was confined in the U.S. for five months for writing useful eBook software.
Please tell the Association of American Publishers' members that you disagree with the Association's support of Dmitry Sklyarov's arrest. Publishers, traditional champions of intellectual freedom, should be ashamed to be associated with censorship, suppression of research, and the dismantling of fair use. ("American Publishers are deeply involved in the increasingly difficult fight to protect the basic right of free expression, at home and abroad. The freedom to read and the freedom to publish must be defended wherever and whenever they are challenged." said AAP's web site, even as it attacked both freedoms.)
I founded the free-sklyarov (unmoderated, high traffic) and free-sklyarov-announce (moderated, low traffic) mailing lists.
The best introduction to the case: Lawrence Lessig's op-ed "Jail Time in the Digital Age". More information about the Dmitry Sklyarov case. Dmitry was finally allowed to go home in December after spending weeks in jail and months away from his family and his home.
The server which hosted my web site crashed at one point, and has subsequently come back on-line. I was supposedly restoring content as I get around to it -- but I think there's more here by now than there was originally!)
I also have a habit of writing web pages which assert that they aren't my home page. (Here is another example, and here is another.) Maybe some day I'll write something and claim it actually is my home page!
I have some contact information here again. (Are you trying to get in touch with me via ICQ?)
I now have my current GPG key available, too. Currently, it looks something like
pub 4096R/9C7DD150 2010-03-18 [expires: 2015-03-17] Key fingerprint = FD9A 6AA2 8193 A9F0 3D4B F4AD C11B 36DC 9C7D D150 uid Seth David SchoenThis will probably work with recent versions of the commercial and semi-free PGP software, and other software which supports the OpenPGP format. To get your own copy of GPG, look here. If you'd like to sign my key (or verify it out-of-band), let me know. I'd also be happy to receive encrypted mail, and I use mutt, which can deal with PGP/MIME.
uid Seth David Schoen sub 4096R/32B3952D 2010-03-18 [expires: 2015-03-17]
I have here a partial catalogue of my book collection (which is no longer maintained; see below) and my want list of books I'm looking for (in progress but out of date). I spend a fair amount of time collecting books, and, when I get even more time, reading them. I have more than 1,000 titles (most uncatalogued) in a few dozen subject areas (especially science, mathematics, computing, and philosophy, but I'm branching out), spanning almost 300 years of publication history. The most important part of my library to me is probably my collection of about 70 books by and about Martin Gardner; I have vowed to collect everything Gardner has ever published, but I'm only about halfway there!
I'm working on a Gardner bibliography, which is one of many reasons I should write to him ("is this complete?"). I'm not including magazine articles which were not reprinted in a separate book or pamphlet. (There would be hundreds of items if I tried that.) At least I don't collect Asimov....
I also have a first edition of The Mathematical Theory of Communication by Shannon and Weaver, and some other books which are really special to me. I got started in book collecting thanks to my father, Kenneth Schoen, who has a book business in Massachusetts.
One of my favorite publishers is Dover Publications. At another extreme of the math publishing world, don't forget about Springer-Verlag. I also enjoy works published by CRC Press, but am angry with them for having shut down Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics for so long with a lawsuit.
My catalogue above is not maintained because of my repetitive strain injuries and because I wrote some book-scanning scripts which make use of a CueCat. I have yet to publish those scripts or their output, but I have a separate catalogue maintained that way. It only covers books in editions with an ISBN -- about 60% of my collection.
For collecting books and for fun, I make a lot of weekend trips; perhaps you'd like to come to some of them. Here are some ideas for possible trips.
I wonder whether my book collection page is blocked by any censorware, since (completely aside from my collection of anarchist literature, not to mention Nadine Strossen) it includes an anti-religious work with the word "sex" in the title (an explanation).
I am the author of the DeCSS Haiku, as seen in David Touretzky's "Gallery of CSS Descramblers", the Wall Street Journal, New York Times Magazine, Carrie McLaren's "Illegal Art" exhibition, etc. (Russian speakers, see also a Russian translation of my essay about this poem.)
I'm teaching a Python class for some people who are mostly non-programmers. Some of my course materials are here, but I should probably call them coarse materials, since they're pretty rough.
More Python fun: a super-simple Monte Carlo methods example which will calculate pi experimentally to a couple of decimal places.
I found a theorem about digital roots and divisibility in 1995, and proved the converse in 2000. I want to write a nice explanation of this which will be understandable and interesting to somebody who doesn't already know what digital roots are, but all I have on-line so far is this extremely terse proof. (This theorem is no doubt already known to number theorists, but I found it interesting because I discovered it on my own, inspired by various allusions by Martin Gardner to digital root tests.) This theorem can tell you why, for example, the digital root test works for testing divisibility of base 10 numbers by the divisors 1, 3, and 9, but for no other divisors.
Have you ever wondered how to multiply with spaghetti? Well, you start by reading a lot of Martin Gardner... (All you need is a ruler and a logarithm table -- or pocket calculator -- and you can make your very own Spaghetti Slide Rule.)
I have a habit of building computer circuits and calculating devices out of electromechanical relays or strands of spaghetti. I should write some notes about those projects soon. I'm fairly fascinated by the history of computation, and I would love to teach a course called "Billiard Ball Computers" (surveying computation with everything except transistors on microchips). For one thing, in order to appreciate how amazing modern electronics is, and exactly how it changed things, you need to have an idea of what came before it, and what kinds of problems it solved.
There's a list of proposed new ACM SIGs (if you aren't a Unix programmer or don't know what ACM SIGs are, this probably won't mean anything to you) that Brian and I once wrote.
If you thought that was funny, you might also like the Towers of Hanoi in troff, which is now about five years old but hadn't previously been written up in a web page.
How about an awk program to solve the problem of dividing n-letter words from a particular lexicon into equivalence classes under reachability in Lewis Carroll's word ladder game? (That's the one where, for example, you turn CAT into DOG by changing one letter at a time. Easy enough: CAT COT COG DOG, or the more round-about CAT BAT BIT BIG BOG DOG. Or turn BLACK into WHITE: BLACK BLOCK CLOCK CLICK CHICK THICK THINK THINE WHINE WHITE is one way to do it. So, a dictionary could be divided into groups of words such that all of the words in a particular group can be turned into one another through word ladders.)
Make your copy of GNU date support "hence" (for symmetry with "ago")! Apply my patch!
[zork(~)] date Sun Dec 9 17:08:42 PST 2001 [zork(~)] date -d '3 days ago' Thu Dec 6 17:08:46 PST 2001 [zork(~)] date -d '3 days hence' Wed Dec 12 17:08:52 PST 2001
My other useless (but funny) patch turns in.telnetd's response to a TELNET AYT (Are You There?) from "[Yes]" to "[No]". It's true that there are virtually no appropriate uses for telnet these days. Still, if you do use telnet, you should use my patch.
I found a copy of my Faraday cages letter (satirically proposing complete electromagnetic isolation of dorms at my high school so that the students there would get enough sleep). The high school newspaper printed it, the year after I graduated, but it might be that few people there got the joke.
I did the geeky law cite thing (link now broken again) that might help you if you are a lawyer, play one on the net, or (especially) want to explain the nature of hypertext links to one. Tell it to the judge. Unfortunately, both the Southern District of New York and the Second Circuit refused to protect 2600's right to make hyperlinks, but maybe we can convince them eventually that a hyperlink is a kind of citation. The idea of my program is to automatically translate a legal citation, like "Tinker v. Des Moines School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969)", into a hypertext link, like http://laws.findlaw.com/us/393/503.html, which would allow you to read the text of the cited legal authority (code or regulatory section, constitutional provision, or a court's decision or rules of procedure).
Some people don't believe that Xerox color copiers include a hidden serial number in all of their output so that a document produced by one can be traced back to that particular machine. In order to prove it, I didn't sit for hours with a microscope or with a scanner and home-brew image processing software. I just asked Xerox, and they confirmed it.
What did Pope Gregory have to say, exactly, about the year 2000?
I am one of the original developers of the Linuxcare Bootable Business Card.
I have forked the Linuxcare Bootable Business Card project to create a new free software project based on it. This project is called the LNX-BBC bootable rescue system, and, like the Linuxcare BBC, is a complete Linux rescue system on a CD small enough to fit in your wallet. Duncan MacKinnon and I gave a presentation on this project to the system administrators' group BayLISA and a conference presentation at LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in August 2001. We are working toward a release of a new version called 1.732, and I'm planning an article about the project for Linux Journal.
I attend some of the things on Rick Moen's great Bay Area Linux Events list. If you're interested in Linux and are in the Bay Area, you might want to take a look. (I've attended CalLUG, SVLUG, BALUG, BAFUG, CABAL, BAD, BayLISA, and BayPiggies at least once each. I've been an invited speaker at four of those and on the board of directors of one, and I'm still planning to speak at two new LUGs in the area.)
I still have the text of Microsoft's letter to customers on the occasion of Windows Refund Day, and Rick Moen's response.(These are by far the most frequently requested files on loyalty.org; it seems people are more interested in Windows Refund Day than they are in me or the California loyalty oath.) (Although Microsoft didn't issue refunds in the United States, manufacturers' consciousness of the issue is apparent from the questionable stickers that have started appearing on new computers warning consumers about licensed software. And a larger number of vendors are starting to offer consumers a choice of another pre-loaded operating system, like Linux. Rick, at least, thinks Windows Refund Day was a success: he got married as a result of it!)
I'm interested in lots of political issues and curious about their philosophical and cultural underpinnings. Pretty much all of the issues I've been actively involved in for the past few years have surrounded the California loyalty oath or "intellectual property".
www.loyalty.org itself is the server for the web site of Californians for Academic Freedom, the group I founded to oppose the California loyalty oath, which is still a non-negotiable requirement for anyone who wants to work for the State of California -- including student employees of the University of California. The CAF web page is down too, and will also come back in time. Most individual documents from my grievance and publicity effort are back on-line, if you know their URLs. I'm happy that UC students write to me every year asking for more information about the oath, although I'm afraid I don't have any good news for them.
Please try a minority digital media format, Ogg Vorbis, in place of some of its better-known and better-funded rivals, like MP3 and RealAudio. Why? Your choice of technologies matters because it affects what will be possible for you and other people in the future.
Hey, kids! Learn about intellectual property! (True or false? "An intellectual property is imaginary and cannot be owned or sold.")
I think I like Gray Day better than Grey Day. Support writers and publishers; fight the expansion of copyright legislation. (Some people are prepared to argue that the advance of technology means copyright laws should be scaled back instead of expanded! I was inspired by that article to write a letter to the San Francisco Chronicle -- which they didn't print -- noting that copyright is just a kind of indirect public subsidy. Now the lawyer whose view I endorsed there is my co-worker!)
On the first weekend in February, there was a protest at the Sony Metreon. This protests was held in support of 2600 Magazine's call for demonstrations against the motion picture industry.
There may be another protest against the MPAA's recent lawsuits held sometime soon in San Francisco. If you are interested, you should contact me. (Even better, contact Ross of SF 2600, as he'd be the organizer.)
I also made a table of my understanding of the logical organization of the DVD video copy control scheme. (The DVD industry's protection scheme for their protection scheme didn't work, and they're now suing a bunch of Linux programmers and free speech advocates to try to suppress information about how to circumvent it. I was planning to maintain a FAQ about this situation at http://www.cssfaq.org/; Rob Warren's FAQ has superseded this project. You can now read his document at the above address; Rob needs your questions and comments, if you have them.) That information is old and would probably no longer be that exciting to people who are following DVD litigation; subsequent developments suggest that it was mostly right.
I've actually learned lots of details about copy control schemes by reading magazines and journals, talking to people on mailing lists, and attending the MPAA's Copy Protection Technical Working Group meetings in Los Angeles. I would like the public to learn more about these details; the industries involved seem content for them to be secret or little-known.
If you can afford to, you should join EFF and support their efforts to defend publishers of CSS decryption code and related information. (Brad Templeton has a funny speech about what you get if you join EFF.) Now the OpenLaw project at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society has been working on collecting ideas for the DeCSS legal defense, and claims that the Digital Millennium Copyright Act is unconstitutional. (The EFF also made an affirmative claim in the Felten lawsuit, where a Princeton professor sued the recording industry and the government for suppressing his research through legal threats. A judge dismissed that case on procedural grounds, without addressing the question of whether Professor Felten has a legal right to publish.)
If you're in the Bay Area, you can also volunteer for EFF. They could really use your help.
I'm so into these issues that I've even taken to hanging out with lawyers! (Local copy of picture from CryptoRights Benefit/RSA Patent Expiration Party.)
In June, I also started volunteering at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Now I'm on staff there. So now I get to hang out regularly with the lawyer depicted above -- the remarkable human rights and civil liberties advocate Cindy Cohn.
I used to write lots of letters to the Daily Cal when I was a Berkeley student. A lot of them disappeared from the Internet when the newspaper switched web server software. If you have copies of any of my letters, please send them to me, because I don't. :-)
Berkeley students, stand up for your right to create Internet-connected vending machines!
Since I started working at EFF, I've been quoted in newspapers and on TV a lot. The Houston Chronicle says I recently said that "The local department store probably has a bigger file on you than [does] the FBI, but the real issue is that when the FBI does decide to pay attention to you, it can bring a lot more resources to bear." I need to practice those sound bites a little more. :-)
Wow, I made it into Salon. I should collect a press clippings file: I've been mentioned in print by the SF Chronicle and Examiner, the SJ Mercury News, and several other California AP papers; by the East Bay Express; by the Daily Californian; by LinuxWorld Online; and (both before and after graduation) in both the student and alumni newspapers of my high school. On-line, I've been published on slashdot, LinuxToday, and LWN. I've also been depicted on CNN (for a piece on how the stock market boom of 2000 affected Silicon Valley companies, and car dealerships, which is weird, because I definitely didn't buy any cars with IPO money or anything, not that I ever bought any cars, period). I've appeared or been quoted anonymously in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, and the New York Times Magazine.
I think I should branch out a little -- all of this news coverage has related to the California loyalty oath, Linux and free software, or my opinions. Well, OK, I did make it into the Daily Hampshire Gazette at age 6 on account of my ability to stir a pot of apple sauce, and the Greenfield Recorder at age 17 for my electrified graduation cap, but these seem more like isolated incidents. I haven't stirred a pot of applesauce since, but I did electrify a graduation cap once again in May 2001. No newspapers reported the incident.
My cousin Ronnie found a copy of the applesauce picture in question, from the Daily Hampshire Gazette (1985?). My first-ever appearance in the press:
Caption: "Seth Schoen got the best job of the day -- watching the apples cook"
I also have some other press coverage here and there, but I haven't felt like noting all of it regularly. There are also things that have gotten into the news without crediting me, and I'd hate to spoil that...
My floating head is now in technicolor (and in Latin). (The original source for all this is picture number 6 at Mark Willey's Linux Revolt Pictures site; my long hair and beard on that occasion were a source for some discussion about whether or not the protest had given a positive impression. There is a long story about how this discussion provoked the creation of "The Floating Head of Seth David Schoen", a noted ASCII art rendering by Nick Moffitt.) My beard in real life grew shorter and shorter and shorter until it disappeared entirely.
I am currently a member of Electronic Frontier Foundation, Free Software Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union, and San Francisco Bicycle Coalition.
I still want to write a web page about Jonas Klein, a remarkable person from my high school whom I never met in person. Jonas died in a bizarre aviation accident in 1993, while a freshman at MIT. In 1998, I collected several submissions for the purpose of making a web page about him, but the hard drive I stored them on crashed, and I have yet to try to recover it. If you are interested in helping, or in contributing something, let me know.
Mr. Bad discovered why I am Seth.
You might enjoy taking Bryan Caplan's Libertarian Purity Test. As he says, it is substantially more accurate than the more famous World's Smallest Political Quiz. (If you think that that Quiz is fair, you should see these great parodies of it at Mike Huben's Critiques of Libertarianism site.)
It's also fun to take other "purity tests" like the Hacker Test, Nerd[ity] Test, and so on. I'm not sure where to find the most canonical copies of those; if I can, I'll link to them. It seems that any sort of "purity test" invariably gives people ideas of things they might try. For my part, I get high scores on the computer-geek-related tests, and enjoy them for the "shock of recognition" and the pure humor value.
I am indebted to Julie Lavoie's web site for revealing that the dd/sh programming language has not vanished from the web. (If you are not a Unix geek, you will probably not understand what this is or why it is funny. One remedy for that would be to become a Unix geek. I've been known to suggest to people that they learn Latin in order to understand particular puns, so this suggestion should not be a big deal, by comparison.)
If you are interested in privacy, anonymity, encryption, wiretapping, espionage, intellectual property, or free speech, you really, really ought to check out the Cryptome archive, run by John Young.
Allow me to recommend the Red Rock Eater News Service, which is probably the single most educational and provocative mailing list I have ever had the good fortune of subscribing to. I, um, perhaps don't agree with Phil Agre's politics much (which would generally be an understatement), but I'm more than impressed with everything -- political, technical, historical, whatever -- I've ever seen him write for his list. It's very useful.
After reading Philosophy and Social Hope by Richard Rorty, I wrote a parody of the song "Believe" from Run Rola Run: "Believe (Richard Rorty Remix)".
When I was fired from Rescomp over the loyalty oath issue, I wrote "If I Were in Rescomp", to the tune of "If I Were a Rich Man".
And I'd discuss O'Reilly books with the learned men
My other silly song parody was the "California Mandated Reporting Song" but I don't know if I have that anywhere or if I'd want to publish it.
I also wrote a critique of the Broadcast Protection Discussion Group in the style of Green Eggs and Ham. (I originally called it "To Geisel, with apology", but Cory improved the title by dubbing it "Fair Seuss".)
Some Internet users have started volunteer translation projects, to collect versions of a phrase in as many languages as possible. My own contribution is international versions of "Rick Moen will be there, will you?"; you can also find (and contribute!) translations of useful phrases like
Sometimes I think that people who maintain translation pages ought to get together and form a translation-exchange group, so that every phrase someone cares about can be translated into every language for which a volunteer translator is available.
Thanks to Robin Hartshorne for his really neat history of the rivals to the phrase "quod erat demonstrandum" in mathematical proofs, along with a proposal to revive the acronyms "QEA" and "QFN". (They mean "which is absurd" and "which cannot be done".)
Neil J. A. Sloane is cool. He runs the On-line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (and he wrote A Handbook of Integer Sequences and An Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, once upon a time).
You suddenly yearn for your distant homeland.
One time I proposed to David Friedman that deliberately and wrongfully revealing the identity of an anonymous person (in violation of some confidence or duty) could be prosecuted as a new tort of famation. I wonder how many readers will get the joke.
What's all the fuss about this "digital rights management" stuff? It's about copyright holders making you into the "adversary", and trying to control your use of products even after you've bought them, through technological means -- backed up by laws and "inter-industry negotiations":
The unusual property of digital content is that the publisher (or reseller) gives or sells the content to a client, but continues to restrict rights to use the content even after the content is under the sole physical control of the client. For instance, a publisher will typically retain copyright to a work so that the client cannot reproduce or publish the work without permission. A publisher could also adjust pricing according to whether the client is allowed to make a persistent copy, or is just allowed to view the content online as it is delivered. These scenarios reveal a peculiar arrangement. The user that possesses the digital bits often does not have full rights to their use; instead, the provider retains at least some of the rights. In a very real sense, the legitimate user of a computer can be an adversary of the data or content provider.
(U.S. Patent 6,330,670, "Digital rights management operating system" (emphasis added))
Keep your management off of my digital rights.
(Donald B. Marti)
The "digital rights" debacle is a powerful source of what military folks call "collateral damage". Copyright holders attack unauthorized copying (both legal and illegal) through technology, courts, and legislatures -- the results hurt free speech, culture, and technology, harming even those who are not copyright infringers. As skeptical copyright scholars like Larry Lessig, Jessica Litman, Siva Vaidhyanathan and James Boyle point out, we can't stem this tide when our language and culture are skewed to represent copyrights as "property, not policy" (Vaidhyanathan). Some people therefore suggest that we ought to be careful with our language in order to avoid conceding debates in advance; I haven't figured out how much language affects perceptions of reality, but it seems significant.
It's interesting that Jack Valenti and John Gilmore both acknowledged that technology can't make a reliable determination about whether something is copyright infringement. But they reached exactly opposite conclusions from this fact: Valenti thought this meant that technology must be responsible for enforcing copyrights, even though some non-infringing activities would be impossible. Gilmore thought it meant that technology should not act as a copyright cop, even though some infringing activities would be possible.
If you use computers (as you probably do if you are reading this), please take a moment to think about how to avoid getting repetitive strain, or cumulative trauma injuries. I am dealing with a distressing case of typing injury; many famous programmers have had these problems, and it can happen to you, too.
My web page is hosted on a machine running the Apache web server on Debian GNU/Linux, and previously co-located at the LinuxCabal in San Francisco. (I could probably give more credits than this: this page was typed on a QWERTY keyboard in an action powered by adenosine triphosphate, except for the two paragraphs which were recognized by voice recognition software.) The LinuxCabal is shut down temporarily, so my web page has moved with Nick Moffitt's machine to parts unknown. Apparently the machine was last seen as a virtual host in Texas, somewhat far away from Nick himself...
Writing to firstname.lastname@example.org is fine, if you want to reach me, but writing to email@example.com is not recommended, because it feeds directly into an automated e-mail abuse reporting system.
Burn all GIFs (fight Unisys LZW software patent) Buy books Go physical places Go virtual places Protect journalists including student journalists Expose secrets Meet Linux geeks Fight software patents Support on-line free speech and privacy rights and give money to help and don't leave young people behind Get your fresh hot kernels Use Unix Don't let this be the future Free Dmitry Sklyarov (oops, too late!) Get a programming education in Russia Question BPDG Know (what you need to) Find kitten